word problems Synonyms list | synonyms and antonyms words for | Odd word out | analogy examples ?
word is the basis of language and indispensable to understand it. an extra emphasis on word related problems. The main types of word problems in the examinations are
- Sentence completion (fill in the blanks)
- Odd word out
It becomes desirable that taker of these examinations start building his\her vocabulary at an early stage.A good vocabulary is very important for success in these examinations. In the course of discussing the above types of word problems, we will be suggesting you the ways to improve your vocabulary.
The first and foremost method of improving vocabulary is reading books, magazines and newspapers A word is complete and newspapers. A word is complete and meaningful only when it is used in a sentence.the sentence brings forth the complete meaning of a word therefore,we will start our discussion of synonym or antonym with the contextual use of these words. In such questions you are required to find a synonym to antonym to an underlined or a bold word in the sentence.Therefore all competitive entrance examinations give Before we start our discussion of such questions, we would like to remind you that whenever a difficult word comes in the way of your reading a newspaper, a book or doing reading comprehension passages first guess the meaning of the word in the context then consult a dictionary and note down the word and its meaning in a note pad for revision By practice you can guess accurately and less and less use of dictionary would be required over time. The most important thing in such exercise is to first guess the general meaning the sentence conveys and then replace the underlined word with another meaningful word in the context. you need to look for a similar word in the option. You will be required to eliminate those choices which are clearly different. Before you tick your answer, underlined word and reading the sentence. The word should be meaningful in the sentence. The idea of choosing a correct word for a context can be better understood if we consider some examples.
Synonym in context
Directions choose the synonym form the four options for the underlined word in the sentence.
Example 1. Cacophony:Quarrelling people created a lot of cacophony and so nobody was able to hear us.
Explanation What quarrelling or fighting or arguing people produce or create that makes hearing impossible? They created what?
The correct answer is © noise.
Example 2. Fallacy: Don’t live under the fallacy that luck will do everything for you.
- Right belief
- Wrong belief
Explanation Is depending on luck for everything right or good you can re-read the sentences as Don’t live under the wrong or bad idea that ……
The correct answer is (d) wrong belief.
Example 3. Desiccate:the washed and wet wheat was spread under the to desiccate
- to dry
- to shine
- to pack
- to break
Explanation Why do we spread clothes and grains under the sun?
The correct answer is (a) to dry
Example 4. Exacerbate:Drinking more and more exacerbated his already poor health
ExplanationIs it advisable to drink when somebody’s health is already poor? What will it do to his health_– improve or make it further bed?
you can read it as ‘Drinking more and more deteriorated …….’
The correct answer is (b) worsened
Example 5. Ambiguous:He changed his statement so many times that entire his message became ambiguous.
Explanation will not change statements again and again confuse the listeners and make it unclear to them you can re -read the sentence as that entire his message became confusing ‘
The correct answer is (d) unclear.
At times you may not be able to guess the meaning in the context because of
- Unfamiliar idea or language
- Unusual usage of the word
In such cases you are advised to take help of the root of the word prefix – suffix or other such devices that we are going to discuss further.
Antonym in context
The exercise on synonyms has made this clear to you how to locate a correct answer Is case of antonyms, you have to first replace the underlined word with an easier word and then make negative of the word by adding ‘no’ or ‘not’ to it. Read the sentence again with the negative word. Then, look for the word in the choices that can fit in the sentence without changing is the negative sense.
Follow the procedure explained below in finding in the context and antonym for the same.
Directions Guess the meaning of the underlined words in the context and choose the antonym for the same.
Example 1. Diligent: The student ‘s constant and diligent efforts brought him great success.
Explanation Constant and diligent’ can be read as ‘constant and Laborious’ and converted into negative as ‘constant but not Iabourious’.is lazy.
The correct answer is (C) lazy.
Example 2. Bellicose:The bellicose countries finally stopped fighting.
Explanation ‘Finally stopped fighting’ suggests that the countries were fighting.bellicose means fighting. Therefore’ you need ‘not fighting ‘ as opposite and another. Therefore, you need ‘not’ fighting’ as opposite word for the same is (c) peaceful.
Example 3. Audacity :Encouraged by success, the soldier moved with audacity and killed the enemy
Explanation obviously ,the soldier moves with confidence or courage or boldness as he was encouraged. Therefore , for ‘without courage ‘there is only one option The correct answer is only one option.
The correct answer is (c) timidity.
Example 4. Garrulous :she had to listen to her garrulous guest for hours in courtesy.
Explanation If the host is forced to listen for hours, it means the guest is talkative. With ‘not talkative’ no option matched but one. The correct answer is (a) taciturn is a person who prefers to remain quiet.
Example 5. Stingy :the stingy old man ,despite being rich, never spent a penny on his own well being.
- Narrow – minded
Explanation It one does not spend money even on urgent needs despite having enough. Such a person is called miser and the correct is (b) generous.
Synonym and word root
The big words that we read today are developed from very small parts of them .these small parts are still there in the word and are called roots . from one common root ,many word have been derived over time and all these words belong to the same root family. These words are not exactly similar in meaning but they have some common hidden similarity.this similarity helps us to know the meaning of the words and remember them. Therefore, knowing the roots of words of the same family is a very effective way of learning and retaining words for long.
As the contextual understanding and elimination of options is helpful in solving synonym and antonym questions, knowing the root of the word is also very helpful, especially when the questions are without context.The very big words like intimidation, congregation, circumambulate or incontrovertible are reduced to their roots such as tim, greg, amble and contra. You need to know their meaning such as tim means fear as in timid, that is, fearful. Another similar word is timorous. By adding prefix in and suffix ation, the word becomes intimidation meaning to frighten, to terrorise. Similarly, the root greg means group or gather and the word congregation means to gather together. Amble means to walk or move and contra means opposite or against. The word circumambulatory means to take of walk through a very long or indirect path and incontrovertible means the one that cannot be contradicted. You need to know the roots of certain words before you can use the skill effectively in synonym and antonym exercises. In the following examples, first see how the root makes a relation among all the words of its family and then understand the special meaning of root words is applied in synonym questions.
Directions In the following examples learn the words before you go through the solved questions.
Example 1. Cognosc \gnosi =know
. recnosize= to know again to identify :to recognize a very old friend
. incognito =not known in disguise; spies remain incognito
. acknowledge = to confirm knowledge, to confirm; please acknowledge the receipt of the letter
. diagnosis = to know before, to forecast ; diagnosis of the disease was accurate
. prognosis = to know before, to forecast; treatment depends on a correct prognosis of a disease
Example 2. Cord ,cor, cardi = heart
.cordial = hearty, hearfelt; a cordial invitation
.concord = put heart into, harmony and friendliness; absence of discord among people
.discord= quarrel, lack of harmony; a noisy discord between the neighbours
. core = central part; from the core of my heart
. cardiac = related to the heart or heart disease; died because of cardiac arrest
Example 3. Cred = believe
. creed = a particular belief or sect; no discrimination on the basis of colour, creed
. credence = believe something; I don ‘t give credence to such gossip
. credit = praise, believe , he got all the credit, I DON ‘t credit what he says , money was credited in his account
. credulous = one who easily believes, simpleton; a credulous village boy cheated by all
. incredible = so amazing and fantastic that cannot be easily believed; incredible miracle
Example 4. Cur, curs = run\flow
.Current = flow
. Concurrent = happening at the same time; concurrent incidents
. Concur = agree, coincide, he fully concurs to the proposal
. Incur = cause oneself to suffer; he incurred great losses in gambling
. Recur = happen again, come back to mind; the same incident recurs in the movie, those pleasant moments recur in my mind
. precursor =thing or person coming before something else, forerunner; the smaller incidents were the precursor of a great revolution
Example 5. dict= say, speak
. diction = style of speaking or writing
. dictate = to order authoritatively
. predict = to say before something happens, forecast
. verdict = to say the correct thing, judgement
. contradict = to say or go against something said
Antonym and word root
In order to find the antonym of the given word, first make sure the meaning of the word with the help of its root and think of an opposite word. To do so either add a negative prefix like a, us, in, im or not at the beginning of the word. Then, match your negative word with the given answer choices.
Directions In the following examples learn the words before you through the solved questions.
Example 2. Flu\flux = flow
. Influence =effect, power to effect
. confluence = flow of rivers coming together, meeting of two of more rivers
. fluid =liquid
. fluency =flow in speech; flowless speech
. fluctuate = change in flow in flow of current, prices etc
Example 3. Form = shape
. uniform = having sameness in shape, size, speed etc
. deform = losing original shape; decompose
. reform = to bring changes for betterment; form the old system into a better one again
. perform = present or show; bring forth in a form
. formation =making or giving a form or shape
Example 4. Fort = strength
. fort = castle; strength
. fortress = castle; large fort
. fortify = strengthen, to make strong
. forte = one’s strong point
. fortitude = courage, endurance
Example 5. Fract\ frag = break
. fracture = break, crack
. infraction = breaking of law or rule
. fragile = easily breakable, delicate
. fraction = a small part
. refraction = bend in the ray of light
- Word roots are only suggestive of the common origin of some words and are quite helpful in remembering and understanding the word of the same family. However over the time the words of the same family have acquired quite different meanings. Knowing each of them by constant practice is important.
- There are many words whose roots cannot be traced and on the basis of resemblance, a part of a word cannot be treated as its root
Synonym and prefix
Some prefixes render negative meaning to a word. If you can identify a word with such prefixes in the question stem, you will immediately get to know what kind of word you have to look for in the answer stem. The synonym of a word with antonym of a word with negative prefix will have to be positive in meaning. Let us see what these prefixes are and what kind of words they form.
|Ab||Away from||Abject abduct||very Hopeless, bad kidnap
|An||Without||Anarchy anachronism||Lawlessness dated wrongly
|Against||Anti -government antipathy||Forces against government feeling against ,hostility
|Contra||Against||Contradict controversy||To say or go against dispute
|Dis||Not||Disqualified dislike||Not remaining qualified not like
|Il\in\ im\ir||Not||Illegal insufficient impossible irrelevant||Not legal not sufficient or enough not possible not relevant or suitable
|Mis||Wrong||Misspell misplaced||Wrongly spell placed or kept wrongly
|Unimportant person undecided|
|Ob\op||Against||Object obnoxious opposition||To be against extremely unpleasant opponent against
|Reject retreat|| Disapprove move back
|Not||Unpleasant unwanted||Not pleasant not wanted, unwelcome
Directions Choose the synonym for the given word.
Example 1. Controversy
Explanation The synonym of a negative word has to be a negative word. Control, command, calm are not negative.
The answer is (a) Dissention.
Example 2. Disagreement
Explanation Again accord ,concord and unanimity are not negative.
The answer is (c ) Difference.
Example 3. Illegible
Explanation Here, knowing the root – legible meaning readable -can be helpful.
The answer is (b) unreadable.
Example 4. Obnoxious
Explanation Only negative word in the options is repulsive meaning unpleasant.
The answer is (d) Repulsive.
Example 5. Regress
Explanation Progress and convert are not negative. But the root gress means move and vert also means the same. Convert = to move or change into, divert = to move away from and invert = to move inward. Similarly, progress = to move forward, regress = to move backward and egress = to go The answer is (b) Revert
Synonym and odd word out
Odd word out is another category of word problem which the examinees may face in an MBA entrance examination. In a cluster of four words, one word is odd. It means three of them are alike. In a synonym problem, three will be synonyms and one will be odd. Therefore, if a candidate can identify at leasttwo alike or synonymous words, it would become an easier task for him. He needs to establish the relation between the two words and check which one of the remaining doses not follow the same relation. In the following cluster of words, identify two similar words;
Explanation Let us assume you know that amusing and entertaining are similar and their relation is that both mean something pleasing to mind. In such a case, you have to check the word out that does not mean pleasing to please your mind. You can go for this choice even if you don’t know the meaning of hilarious and humorous. Thus, the answer is (d) dull
Directions Choose the word that is not synonymous to the rest of the three in each group,
Example 1. (a) amity
Explanation You can make a relation either between amity and amicableness or between harmonious and friendliness; or and other you like. Let us consider the second choice. Harmonious and friendliness both give peace and pleasure. Do amity and amicableness also give the same? Yes, they do. But for our purpose one pair is enough. Check what does not give peace and pleasure. Animosity is enmity or hostility.
In case, you find this question difficult, consider their sounds. Amity and amicableness are similar sounding whereas animosity is close to animal or enemy.
The required odd word is (b) animosity.
Explanation you might know beast and animal to be same.
They are against divine.
The required odd word is (d) divine.
Explanation you already know the relation between cacophonous and noisy. They are unpleasant, discordant confusion of sound. Content is, of course, not a sound and not unpleasant either
The required odd word is (c) content.
Explanation Dirty and soiled are easy to relate. But disabled is neither dirty nor soiled.
The required odd word is (d) disabled.
Explanation We have already learnt the words strengthen and fortify. If you remember, they are same. They boost or make strong. Which one does not have the same element enhance or grievance?
The required odd word is grievance. It means a reason for complaint or protest.
We need to use shortcuts to cope with the high difficulty levels in these examinations. However, it is always advisable that
- Don’t forget to check other options before ticking your answer finally.
- Take the tips and enough exercises to improve your vocabulary as there’s nothing like a good vocabulary for improving language.
Directions(Q. NOS. 1-11) Guess the meaning of the underlined words in the context and choose the synonym for the some.
1.Banish :The hardoreciminals in Britain of the past years were banished and they had to spend the remaining days of their life in distant colonies like Australia.
- Behold :Wordsworth’s heart leapt when he beheld the rainbow.
- beneficiary :Who is the legitimate beneficiary of princess Gayatri Devi ‘s huge wealth?
- Bibliophile :The huge collection of books is a clear evidence that the owner of this house was a great bibliophile.
- Buttress :he became a decisive winner when he buttressed his debate by convincing argument and examples.
- collateral: In lack of collateral or guarantor many bona fide citizens are unable to secure loan from a bank.
- Ruinous: The stringent and harsh mrasures taken by the government proved to be ruinous for the economy.
- Requisition :An additional battalion was requisitioned to handle the grim situation.
- Insolvent :After the trader lost his entire wealth, he was declared insolvent.
- Totalitarian :The ways of the new ruler were totalitarian as he had denounced all democratic rights to citizens and imposed censorship on the media.
- Virtuoso :Michael Jackson was really a virtuoso of rocking and popping.
Directions (Q. Nos 12-25) choose the correct meaning of the given word.
(b) Round about
(c) full of respect
(d) to inspect
(a) Man -made
(b) Policy holder
(d) Seller of the house
Directions (Q. Nos 26.30 ) Choose the appropriate word closest in meaning to the italic word.
- a baffling problem
- a nostalgic feeling
(c) home sick
- an incorrigible person
(a) beyond correction or reform
- unorious husband
(b) guilty of infidelity
(d) foolishly doting on with
- posthumous child
(c) born after the death of the father
(d) physically weak
Directions (Q. Nos. 31-35 ) Each question is followed by four alternatives. Select the most appropriate alternative which is closest in meaning to the given word.
(a) Readily fluent
(a) Fixed procedure
(b) Heated quarrel
(c) Overwhelming defeat
(d) specific course
(a) tin whistle
(c) street gang
(c) dull and boring
(a) trendy dress
(b) fashionable word or phrase
(d) Ultra – modern
Directions (Q. Nos. 36 -40 ) Mark the correct meaning of the given word.
(a) the crime of killing family members due to property dispute
(b) the crime of killing protected animals
(c) the crime of killing of large numbers of people belonging to a particular race
(d) the crime of killing of large numbers of people speak a particular language
(a) a fear of spiders
(b) a fear of new technology especiall computers
(c) a fear of foreigners
(d) a fear of being in a small or crowded place
(a) a man who hates women
(b) a woman who hates men
(c) a man who hates men
(d) a woman who hates women
(a) someone who lives a very luxurious life
(c) someone who lives a very happy life
(d) a notorious criminal
(a) someone who collects coins
(b) someone who collects books
(c) someone who collects stamps
(d) someone who collects paintings
Directions (Q. Nos. 41 -50 ) Guess the meaning of the underlined word in the context and choose the antonym for the same.
- Blasphemy :The medieval church used to burn those alive who were found guilty of blasphemy
- Fickle :He remained fickle about choosing a career and kept dropping one for the other.
- circumspect :The border security forces have to be circumspect to keep any prospective infiltration under check.
- Conscientious :she finally got admission in a prestigious business school because of her constant and conscientious effort.
(d) hard – working
- Dexterous :The shoemakers were so dexterous that they created each pair with perfection.
- Disreputable :Corrupt ways of earning of earning money left them undignified and disreputable.
- Elucidate :Elucidate the idea by giving suitable examples and illustrations.
- Fictitious: The characters and incidents in this serial are fictitious and their any resemblance with real characters is just a matter of chance.
- Hideous :The face of terrorism is so hideous that no human heart can appreciate it.
- Innate :All good qualities are not innate in man; but he has to cultivate most of them with effort.
Directions (Q. Nos. 51 -80) Tick the word that is not a synonym of the given word.
(a) without standards
(b) without scruples
(d) old – fashioned
Answers with solutions
- (b) Denouncing democratic right and censorship on media are the symptoms of dictatorship. Accountable is that government which is responsible to answer the questions of the public. Perfectionist is someone who tries to be best in his performance and teetotaler is the one who has denounce drinking wine. Therefore, dictatorial is the synonym of totalitarian.